Melting. Melt Treatment
Kudrin V.A. et al. The Role of Basic and Acid Refractories in Producing Steel without Impurities
In the work (article) kinetic regularities of the interaction of Sn and Zn with refractory lining materials chromemagnezite and magnezite are investigated. Using the nowadays method of investigation and mathematic instrument the authors found out that the impurities of studied low melting non-ferrous metals penetrate through the pores of the refractory till the steel was melted, accumulate, and then "pollute" the steel during the following meltings.
The results were got by means of studying of the interaction (contact) between the impurity elements and alkaline refractories. The same investigations with acid refractories were not carried because of the lack of prouding. Meanwhile the influence of acid refractory on the process of steel pollution by impurity elements can be significant.
Davydov S.V. et al. Effect of Alloying on the Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Conditions in Large-Size Iron Castings
In article some final results of the carried out researches on finding - out of influence of some alloying elements (Ni, Cu, Mo, Ni-Mo-Cu, Cr-Cu) both on static and cyclic durability, and on an opportunity of reception are given thus faultless castings.
It is established, that to alloy cast iron by nickel, copper, by molybdenum it is accompanied not only increase of a level of his mechanical properties, but simultaneous improvement of conditions of crystallization of cast iron at hardening that promotes decrease of a marriage castings on shrinkable defects in manufacture. The opportunity of increase of mechanical properties of cylinder cast iron with simultaneous improvement of process of his crystallization is considered at hardening.
Filinkov M.D. et al. Manufacturing Method and Properties of Cobalt-Chromium-Based Alloys
The article sets forth the method of manufacturing a heat-resistant alloy based on the "cobalt-chromium" system, which is used to produce cast valve rings for internal-combustion engines. Melting was performed in an acid crucible induction furnace. The alloy produced has a high corrosion resistance at temperatures of up to 1,000°C and an enhanced resistance to thermal fatigue. The structure and properties of the cobalt-chromium alloy remain stable during long operation. Dependencies of mechanical properties on the alloy's chemical composition have been obtained.
Filatov Y.A. et al. Scandium-Alloyed Aluminum Alloys
The mechanism of strengthening deformable aluminum alloys when being alloyed with scandium, the main properties of deformed semifinished products from alloys of the systems Al-Mg-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc, and the prospects of their application in various fields of engineering are discussed.
The application of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Sc instead of serial alloys of the system Al-Mg reduces the mass of a structure, which is very important for aerospace technology products.
The importance of the further development of Al alloys with scandium and the expansion of the field of their application, for which it is necessary to create conditions for recovering scandium from mining-and-metalmaking waste has been substantiated.
Chertov V.M. Low-Carbon Martensitic Steel: Combination of Forging with Defectless Hardening
Shanyavsky A.A. Super-Multi-Cycle Fatigue of Metal as a Property of a Partially Closed Self-Organizing System
From the positions of synergetics, there is proposed an explanation of the cascade of discrete transitions that metal undergoes under cyclic loading when its magnitude increases from specimen to specimen, and a bifurcational diagram of fatigue failure has been constructed. A notion of the critical point of instability has been introduced instead of the known notion of "the fatigue limit" when the method of adsorption and dissipation of energy by metal changes in a self-organized way due to origination of a crack under or from the surface, like in a partially closed or open system. The hierarchy of scale levels of the fatigue crack origination processes in metals has been systematized, and it has been shown that under the operation conditions at the increase of the number of cycles of loading structure elements their failure occurs in the area of super-multi-cycle fatigue with the origination of cracks under the surface.
Kabaldin Y.G. et al. Controlled Synthesis of Materials Based on Artificial Intelligence
Based on neuronet simulation and nonlinear dynamics approaches that make up the concept of artificial intelligence, an information model of self-controlled synthesis of nanostructures has been developed. The results of an experiment on recovering nanocrystalline powders show that the nanosystems of ?-iron are three-dimensional fractals.
Gavrilin I.V. The Family of Aluminum-Based Eutectics
It has been experimentally found that the aluminum-based eutectics form a family by a certain dependence, the regularities of which are discussed in this work. The hypothesis on melting and crystallization of eutectics and behavior of the leading portion (low-temperature component) of an alloy and the led phase that is dispersed or conglomerated under the influence of the leading portion is discussed. The mechanism of eutectics formation is related not only to melting and formation of clusters, but also concerns the structure and interaction of atoms in the melt.
21st Century Technologies
The Energy of the Future (continued)
Vainshtein E. F. Use of Metallurgical Production Facilities for Resolving Environmental Problems of Recycling Industrial and Domestic Waste
Methods of high-speed pyrolysis and oxidizing of organic and element organic substances by air oxygen have been proposed. Their advantages and possibility of use in combination with the metallurgical production practice have been studied.
Naidek V.L. et al. Influence of Vibrotreatment Method on the Character of Solidification of a Continuously Cast Part
Peculiarities of solidification of a continuously cast part depending on the method of application of vibropulse to it have been studied on a physical model. It has been established that the efficiency of vibrotreatment of continuously cast parts depends on the point of application, parameters and direction of the vibropulse.
Consistent quality of casting ensures transfer of simulation results to the real process.
Information. News Items
Smolyarenko V.D., Ruskol V.I., Mokeeva Y.Y. Review of Domestic and International Information
Review to a Monograph by A.A. Shanyavsky "Safe Fatigue Failure of Aircraft Structure Members. The Sinergetics in Engineering Applications"